Waterproofing of structures for protection against water or moisture may come from all directions, called the operations performed on the surface of the building envelope.
Due to human nature he has always wanted to protect himself from atmospheric conditions. The caves, in terms of both cold and prehistoric times to protect them from severe storms is clear that a good shelter. To avoid any negativity that brought rain and storms, rainwater has been avoided with caves and later created the first tents. Waterproofing against our interests first as the need for protection from the rain. This needs; caves, hidden among the rocks, then the result has led to the emergence of the roof of the tent, and thus the concept. Conditions to avoid is the water coming from above. But over time, the direction and conditions of the water to be avoided with the development of technological changes in the structure of the way. Now, not only will the water from the cloud, which can cause damage to groundwater in building our law position.
Contribute to this process are built into the legislative transition from nomadic life is great. When the tents with mankind throughout the continent tiring than driving around, I felt the need to acquire land to release the stem, the stem-like building was born the need to release their roots deep into the soil.Now it was necessary to fight in the water below.
The structure, long life, be comfortable and healthy; but it can be properly designed and constructed with protection against external impacts and damaging buildings. One of the most important factors affecting the structure is water. Buildings;
– Rain, rain or snow,
– Soil moisture and precipitation is absorbed by soil or water use,
– Bathroom, water use in wet areas such as toilets,
– The structure, they are exposed to water on the floor because it was built with or without pressure on groundwater.
Water can not be prevented threatening nature and comfort of the ways listed above, but structures can be prevented to enter the water. Structures for protection against water or moisture can come from any direction, with the transactions made on the surface of the building envelope “waterproofing ” is called.
The biggest threat in terms of building life and durability of “water” stop. leaking water Buildings;reinforcement corrosion in the structure of interrupting the carrier part of the reduction in cross-section and load capacity syllogism causes a decrease in serious quantities. Also the water in the building component, froze during the cold season, and evaporates in the hot season deterioration of the concrete integrity and leads to the formation of cracks. Apart from that soil moisture or ground sulfates present in the water, entering into chemical reaction with the concrete foundation causes the deterioration of the concrete composition. This affects the structure and strength of life negatively.Water is also harmful to human health mold in buildings, mushrooms and so on. It leads to the formation of organic substances.
Structure elements above the ground; rain water and the loss of acidic atmospheric gases; The structure of the elements below ground waterproofing is done to protect from the harmful effects of ground water and moisture. For effective waterproofing, insulation application, it must include all structural elements of the building to the foundation to the roof. Ground floors, balconies, exterior walls, roof and foundation walls would be subject to isolation.
In 1999, two major earthquakes happen in succession after the richter scale, tsunami, new concepts such as soil investigation into our lives. The corrosion was one of those concepts. corrosion due to the collapse of many buildings in the earthquake, so was the rust. The reason was not made of corrosion and waterproofing. unfortunately it could not even yet fully understood a very painful experience should be sealed against water structures.
The greatest impact on water structures are related to the life of the building and security. This case reveals that the waterproofing is crucial.
Waterproofing Protect Structure
The damage to the structure of water, particularly a threat in terms of security of life and property in the region where the earthquake threat. water leaking into the structure reinforcement in any way, leads to the loss of functionality of the equipment entering freeze or chemical reaction. the loss of property of the reinforcement has a negative impact on the strength and duration of power.
Given the strength of our water damage the building often can not see eye, but we can recognize when we face the consequences. In a large earthquake, a building corroded survival is almost impossible. Therefore, there is a particularly vital importance of waterproofing in the earthquake zone countries such as Turkey.
In general, concrete, protects against corrosion of reinforcing steel embedded in. Reinforcement embedded in concrete does not adhere to steel buried formed thin film and create resistance against corrosion. Ions in humidity in this alkali environment and high strength concrete, the electrical resistance of the capillary gap directly bağlıdır.beto plays a role in electrical conductivity. High electrical resistance can mean durable concrete.
The corrosion of reinforcing steel in the structure and there are 3 main factors leading to the continuation of this corrosion;
1. Carbon dioxide or chlorine-induced degradation of the reaction as a result of the protective passivation layer around the reinforcement,
2. dispersed in the capillary pores of the concrete and water acting as electrolyte,
3. oxygen entering through the pores of the concrete.
Of concrete reinforcing steel disrupting the film on one of the conditions that cause corrosion Download carbonation. It is chemically reacted with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of the cement in concrete, concrete shrinkage, which in turn leads to increased cracking. to fall at the same time in concrete, the pH (pH of normal concrete is between 12.5 -13.5 and this amount is sufficient to avoid corrosion) interface in alkalinity to fall, causing deterioration of current protective layer. Another reason for the deterioration of the protective layer in the presence of chloride ions. As a result, in both cases the requirements for The onset of corrosion occurs (the pH value falls below 9) and execute through the process begins. At a rate that occurs in the ambient conditions, the surface reinforcement consists of reinforcing volume of 2.5 times the size of iron oxide formation.
The resulting rust, rust if insufficient share issue, breaks down the existing concrete. reveal reinforcement with the concrete pour. because of the inevitable increase in the rate of corrosion in contact with air.
Formed in the reinforcement section loss due to corrosion, causing originally designed to meet the owner of the account value. The carrying capacity of the building, so it is no undesirable in terms of building security. Account strength of 365 MPa, which S420b class Ø12’Lik a reinforcing steel was initially 41.3 kN taşıyabilirk the corrosion-induced reinforcement section loss of 0.25 mm / year is an accepted conclusion that after 5 years of 25.9 kN, can carry 15 years later, 5.8 kN. These conditions will be completely lost at the end of the syllogism capacity reinforcement 24 years.
Waterproofing Provides Comfort
Water, not just as an essential element for us how important today is to be protected for our structure. Soil moisture and pressurized water through the pores in the mold interior surface structural member, causes the formation of organisms such as black spots, and fungus. Therefore, the inner surface of which the decay of natural materials such as wood, as a result of the corrosion of iron in flaked plaster walls and disrupt our comfort.
It caused by humidity and moisture leads to the formation of a bad smell of mold in places. This will disturb the people in the environment. prevention of moisture by the waterproofing that negatively for human comfort eliminates the possibility of the spread of these malodors.
Waterproofing, water room, while the acquisition of our comfortable structure prevents dripping, bacteria, mold and so on. It prevents the formation of organisms.
It contributes waterproofing Economy
Economic values must be increasing the longevity of the structure today. Today a building’s life nearly 50 years. The negative effects of water reduces the lifetime of the structure. It is an economic loss. This loss will be also fixed by waterproofing.
92 percent of the surface area in the country, 95 percent of the population density is in the earthquake zone. earthquakes occurring in the last 58 years, according to data of the Ministry of Public Works and Housing; 58 thousand 202 of our citizens lost their lives, 096 to 122 thousand of our citizens and the injury caused about 411 thousand 465 buildings collapse or severe damage.
A report prepared by the World newspaper; Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Damage Assessment Commission, and the work of 55 thousand 651 housing made 79 percent of the buildings damaged was stated that examined the controls found. According to the news; Corrosion caused by the humidity in the 64 percent of inspected premises (rust), lack of materials, 41 percent, watering the concrete during the construction phase, 18 percent, 11 percent wear and tear, projects a 3 percent error was determined as the cause of damage. 21 percent of the buildings in unsuitable ground at the same news construction, the removal of the carrier element 6 percent and it is stated that the identified issues such as drilling.
The cost of the construction phase of waterproofing is about 3 percent of the building costs. the stability of the building is the most important factor that should be considered. Accordingly, the benefits of waterproofing is more important than cost.
Waterproofing, water can enter our building; the foundation, the walls in contact with the ground, below the level of the external walls will be pressed to accumulate water or water outside the building, balconies, terraces and sloping roofs and are made in a wet area. water must be designed according to the rules of insulation at the initial stage of a structure to be durable. the building was constructed without waterproofing, roof and wet the waterproofing later easily be made while the excavation of the surrounding buildings for insulation of walls below ground to be made of waterproofing the foundation on which sits on gereklidir.bin when it is necessary to air the removal of our The structure, which is not yet possible. In such cases, only it prevents the formation of mold and fungus disrupts our comfort. Water damage affects the life of the structure after the structure is built literally impossible to be protected. Basic level of the water drain (drain) structure with the removal of our measures is the only application that can be done often. Another field of application of waterproofing, we want to remain in the water, swimming pool, water reservoirs, artificial ponds and so on. Structures.
Water insulation in buildings, in which the severity of the water, which is where you come if you give form and hence the structural elements of the building envelope also includes entering done to prevent damage to the structure. Basically waterproofing divided into structural and surface waterproofing.
Source: Izoder, General Information, izoder.org.tr