What is Water ? Physical, Chemical and Biological Properties

Water is life. Varies according to the characteristics of the soil layer where the water now. Salts received from the layer of soil and changes in taste and smell by minerals. various germs and bacteria on the water miscible location. Plant debris, mud and other suspended matter will distort the image of the water. The level of these substances in thewater, and to indicate the quality of water used in the area.

Water Physical, Chemical and Biological Properties

Physical Features

Visually apparent and non-soluble, the waterproportion of sensible and easy decomposable material determines the physical properties of water. They smell flavor, color, clarity and warmth.

– Smell and taste: moss and similar materials will change the taste of the water and causes the bad smell. Oxygen and carbon dioxide gases in the melt phase in water, gives a pleasant flavor to the water.
– Color: colloidal organic matter dissolved or hanging gives color to the water.
– Clarity: algae and other impurities in waterturbidity data. These substances can damage the bottom of collapsing once installation tools and equipment.
– Temperature: the temperature of the drinking water should be between about 7-12 ° C.

What is that

Chemical Properties

Chemical properties of water, ground water is often involved some strong acids, salts and some gas water determines the presence in the molten state. Calcium and magnesium bicarbonates temporary hardness (or carbonate hardness) of these elements still chloride, nitrate, sulfate, and phosphate silicate permanent hardness (or non-carbonate hardness) data. Both hardness is called rigidity than the whole. It is removed by boiling the water that came forward from temporary hardness bicarbonate. However, permanent hardness calcium and magnesium sulfate and chloride compensated by boiling for coming forward.

There are various hardness units. Among the most frequently used ones are:
– French hardness (FS): 10 mg per liter of water, including calcium carbonate hardness, hardness 1 is very French.
– English hardness (IS): 1 gallon (0.7 liters) of water including hardness of 10 mg calcium carbonate, one is British hardness.
– German hardness (AS): 10 mg per liter of calcium oxide (CaO), including the hardness of the water.
– American hardness: 1 grain (0.0648 g) CaCO3 / US gallon (3,785 l)
– Russian hardness of 0.001 g Ca / L 1 = 0.7 FSI = 0.56 AS IS = 10 ppm

To give quantitative information in the above table;

or ppm CaCO31:000.070,0580.100,0560.40
The British sertlik.derece14,191.000.831.430.805.72
American Hardness17,
French Hardness10.00.700.581.000.564.00
German Hardness17.861.251.041.791.007.14
Russian Hardness2.500.

Comparison of waterhardness

We noted that the sum of permanent and temporary hardness of the waterhardness.

– Temporary hardness (carbonate hardness): Calcium and magnesium ions dissolved in water, which stems from bicarbonate (calcium bicarbonate Ca (HCO 3) 2 and magnesium bicarbonate Mg (HCO 3) 2). calcium and magnesium ions in water by heating the water, which is removed by precipitation (CO2 in flies.) are given temporary hardness name. The reaction is as follows:
Ca (HCO 3) 2 ====== CaCO3 + H2O + CO2
Mg (HCO 3) 2 ====== MgCO3 + H2O + CO2

– Permanent hardness (non carbonate hardness) sulphate (SO4 =), Chlorine (Cl) and nitrate (NO3) is caused by the hardness ions. These calcium sulfate CaSO4, MgSO4 is magnesium sulfate, calcium chloride, CaCl2, MgCl2, magnesium chloride, calcium nitrate Ca (NO3) 2, magnesium nitrate Mg (NO3) 2 and partly consists of other compounds. according to the waterhardness;
Too soft: 0-5 FR
Soft: 5-10 FR
Medium Hard: 10-20 FR
Hard: 20-30 FR
Very Hard:> determined as 30 FR.

Biological Properties

One of the smallest of organisms, bacteria in water indicates the biological properties of the water.Overground waters are found especially bacteria. Bacterial contamination of water above ground, would be the environment. Aquatic bacteria are very diverse. All of these are not harmful. At the beginning of the harmful typhoid, para typhoid fever, bacillary dysentery and cholera bacteria income. Drinking water should not contain any bacteria from the group coli form in 100 ml samples taken from the entrance to the network. % Drinking water from 100 ml samples taken from the network 95 “should not be any bacteria in the boxes in the form of group. It parcels form groups of up to 5 samples 100 samples assayed, it means when it can be acceptable to the presence of bacteria.

A large part of the earth is surrounded by water. However, smoking can be used for various purposes and waterresources are limited, the proper use of water resources and for this reason it is necessary to prevent contamination.

Human Health and Water

It is a fact that pose a risk to human health is not clean water. Typhoid, money typhoid fever, cholera, bacillary and amoebic dysentery, stomach and intestinal inflammation, many diseases such as liver inflammation is due to contaminated drinking water. swim in dirty water and bathe the eye, ear, nose, throat and skin, causing various diseases. Growing ringworm of feet between the fingers and the pool has proven may occur.

Wateranthrax, is suspected when carried diseases such strip. Slightly diminishes the waterfluoride to children’s tooth enamel and makes no stains occur. how important clean water is to protect human health in contaminated water, there is no doubt that it is very dangerous to your health.

The Importance of Water

Best to call in a Drinking Water Features

– Odorless, colorless, should be clear and refreshing to me.
– Inside is pleasant, should preferably be 7 ° C.
– Hardness should be 7-14 degrees French hardness.
– It must not contain toxins and harmful substances.
– Pathogen (pathogen) should not contain microorganisms.
– Plenty and prices must be affordable.

Cleaning the City Waters

Always at the desired quality in residential areas and there is not enough water. Therefore, they must decompose harmful substances. various cleaning methods are used to bring about the conditions demanded of water standards and regulations. Cleaning them to the waters of the receipt of the drinking water supply in small settlement with some small measure of immediate solution. Cleaning the major cities drinking water is difficult and challenging. Because these are not enough resources in smaller cities it benefits from large lakes and rivers. substances harmful to health in these waters should be cleaned may be. The cleaning process depends on the structure and properties of substances contained in the water. Cleaning methods are widely used.

Clearing Sudan Acid and Gas

Groundwater is sometimes seen to gases such as hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide. oxygen, while carbon dioxide it causes an increase in the hardness of the watertogether.Special prepared on the grill in the form of a thin layer of still air streamed or sprinklers sprayed water, purified from contacting it with plenty of gas in the air. These methods other than thermal, and chemical decontamination shapes used in vacuum.


Plant debris in the water, relaxation method is used for separating substances such as mud and miles. Including chemical, mechanical and made of two kinds. Taken in the 2-5 m depth in the pool mechanical pondering the speed of water of 2-10 mm / sec is reduced. The waterretention time 4-24 hours. suspended matter in water decomposes fall down to bottom. chemicals into the water to speed up the process while pondering pondering the chemical are discarded. For this, more aluminum, iron salts and lime used. These chemicals can coagulate totally obliterated exacerbating suspended impurities in the water. The aim is to shorten the time to focus in using coagulant. The pool at the bottom of a clay layer occurs over time. This mud is cleaned with a special machine.


To boil water for 10 minutes is enough to kill germs. However, this method is not practical and economical. Microbes in the cleaning process can not be eliminated completely but partially reduced.But to boilwater in places where epidemics can Uygul. ozone to clean the water of germs, chlorine, lime is used. These substances are commonly used for cleansing Ieh waters. Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection is made in passing of light.

Filtration (filtration)

Soil beneath the waters would be a natural filtration. We can perform a filtration process in mimicking this event. Are commonly used filtration media are sand. Then anthracite, coal, and may kieselguhr. Relaxation made the still remaining water is made to separate suspended substances.This process is used for the appropriate thickness and clean sand. Water is passed from the sand layer. Sand filtration will be two levels of slow and fast.
Slow filtration, the speed of the water from the sand layer 50-250 mm / hr, sand grit size 0.5-1 mm, 0.70 to 1.20 m thick layer of sand “is. In the fast filtering 5-10 m / hr, sand grit of 0.35 to 0.60 mm “, layer thickness of 0.65 to 1 m” dr. Over time a layer of sand is contaminated and can not do the filtering task. substances that fills the space between the sand making backwash to clean.

Iron and manganese Adjusted to Sudan

The water iron and manganese dissolved in the case causes a yellowish haze. This leads to undesirable consequences for domestic and industrial use. Iron and manganese in the water with plenty of air moved in contact easily precipitated. If this is not possible to use some chemicals.

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