Biodiesel, rapeseed (canola), sunflower, soybean, safflower, such as obtained from oilseed crops vegetable oils or accompanied animal fat a catalyst with short chain alcohol (methanol or ethanol) the reaction product used as the fuel to open the result.Domestic cooking oils and animal fats can be used as raw material for biodiesel.
Biyodiesel contains no petroleum; but at any rate it is used in pure form or mixed with petroleum-based diesel fuel. Pure biyodiesel and diesel-biodiesel blends into any diesel engine can be easily used on small changes or needing any modification.
Biyodiesel, diesel rates have been called some of the mixture as follows:
• Biyodiesel B5 = 5% + 95% diesel
• Biyodiesel B20 = 20% + 80% diesel
• Biyodiesel B50 = 50% + 50% diesel
• Biyodiesel B100 = 100%
Biodiesel Production Methods
There are various methods of biyodiesel production, today, the most widely used method of transesterification (alcoholysis) method. Oil used as raw materials in the transesterification reaction, a monohydric alcohol (ethanol, methanol), the catalyst (acidic, basic catalysts and enzymes) as the main product in the presence of fatty acid esters and glycerine by the esterification. Also as by-product in the esterification reaction of mono and di-glycerides, more reactant and consists of free fatty acids. In the biyodiesel production, canola (rapeseed), sunflower, soybean and so on. oilseed crops obtained from vegetable oils, waste frying oils and animal fats with alcohol as methanol, catalysts are alkali catalyst (sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and sodium methylate) is preferred.
The Biodiesel Production Process
Biodiesel Fuel Specifications
• The flash point of biodiesel is higher than diesel (> 110 ° C). This feature biodiesel use, transportation and ensures a safer fuel in storage.
• Biodiesel can be mixed in any ratio with petroleum diesel completely. This feature improves the quality of petroleum-based diesel. For example combustion, reduce emissions of harmful gases into the environment, consisting of oil in the engine increases and solves deposits reduces the engine power.
• biodiesel cetane number of the diesel engine is higher than the cetane number is running a less knock.
• Biodiesel can be used in engines that use diesel fuel without making any technical changes or small changes. natural rubber is used in some vehicles manufactured before 1996 could not be used compatible with biyodiesel. Because biyodiesel has destroyed hoses made of natural rubber and seals.However, these problems B20 (20% biodiesel – diesel 80%) and a lower rate of biyodiesel / diesel mixture invisible.
• solvent properties of biyodiesel due to diesel measures to clogging of the filter for the fuel stored in the fuel tank caused solve ruins-in and sediment in the pipe wall should be taken. In addition, fuel stations and car repair shops do not need any changes.
• Biodiesel, due to the acquisition of agricultural plants, the CO2 through photosynthesis’ i (carbon dioxide) to accelerate the converting carbon cycle does not influence the greenhouse effect and increases it. we consume CO2 to the atmosphere from the biyodiesel will be withdrawn within a maximum of one year by oil plants to be used in biodiesel production. From this point of view: biyodiesel production, it makes an important contribution in the context of reducing the problems caused by the natural can be considered as the pharynx and the world’s most important environmental issues and fossil irretrievable fuel CO2 emissions resulting from the greenhouse effect caused by global warming to CO2 emissions.
• 95 percent of biyodiesel at the end of a 28-day period is allowed to water defrosted, diesel decreases the rate up to 40 percent range. Therefore, in many states, especially in the US, lakes and rivers, such as the use of pure biyodiesel in transportation vehicles and boats used in the aquatic area is mandatory.
• To easily decompose by bacteria can be considered environmentally friendly as it contains a sulfur content of biyodiesel is much lower than diesel. In the event of the use of biodiesel instead of diesel, acid rain and prevents the formation of negative environmental impacts such.
• In addition, the reductions in CO emissions, particulate matter and unburned hydrocarbons (HC) has proven that less released.
• Pure biyodiesel and diesel-biodiesel blends with the use of CO, PM, HF, and CH 4 emissions reduction of SOx, NOx and HCl emission is seen to increase.
• Biyodiesel converts carbon dioxide through photosynthesis in the biological carbon cycle accelerates the carbon cycle, also it has no effect on the direction of increasing the emission of greenhouse gases.
• Biyodiesel, diesel fuel provides lower exhaust gas emissions. When analyzed in terms of exhaust emissions of CO, HC, SOx, PM is less than the emissions of diesel fuel, it is seen that the greater the NOx emissions.
• Sulphur emissions can be completely removed with the use of pure biyodiesel. Compared with diesel fuel is composed of sulfur dioxide and sulfate emissions kirlinilik cleaned with the use of biyodiesel and it is not.
• carbon monoxide emissions from the use of biyodiesel compared to diesel fuel is less than 48%.
• Particulate is not beyond endanger the respiratory health on the environment. The amount of particles occurred during the use of biodiesel compared to diesel fuel is less than 47%.
• use of biodiesel in the diesel fuel by the unburned hydrocarbon ratio, 67%, 80% CO 2 emissions, while aromatic hydrocarbons are carcinogenic 75% – less than 90%.
• Biodiesel does not contain sulfur. Therefore, reducing exhaust emissions and can be easily applied on systems using biodiesel NOx control technologies. Conventional diesel fuel is not suitable for NOx control technology because it contains sulfur.
• The biodiesel does not contain sulfur creates sulfur dioxide emissions. This is a very important advantage. The emission characteristics of the cancer-causing factors and reduced risk of cancer is reduced by up to 90%.
• The use of biodiesel, which adversely affects the ozone layer, 50% less than diesel fuel. sulfur compounds that cause acid rain is almost absent in biodiesel fuel.
• Biodiesel, resulting from the use of diesel fuel and eliminates a lot of environmental factors that threaten human health. Biodiesel emissions, a potential cause of cancer polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives (PAH) in the resulting emission reductions in the rate of 80-90% is determined.
Storage Requirements for Biodiesel
necessary distribution and storage methods and rules also apply to biyodiesel for diesel fuel.Biodiesel is clean, dry, stored in a dark environment, excessive heat should be avoided. Tank mild steel as the material, stainless steel, fluorinated polyethylene and fluorinated polypropylene can be selected.
Storage, transport and motor materials copper, lead, zinc used is recommended. Some elastomers, the use of natural and butyl rubber is objectionable; Because biodiesel is break these materials. In such cases, the use of biyodiesel compliant elastomeric material Viton B type is recommended.
Storage tank in the composition of aluminum, steel, fluorinated polyethylene, fluorinated polypropylene and Teflon may however; copper, brass, lead, tin and zinc should be noted there.
Use of Biodiesel in Diesel Engine
The flame temperature is higher than the biodiesel in diesel fuel. Therefore, it is a safer fuel handling and storage.
Biodiesel calorific value of diesel is rather closer to the calorific value of the diesel cetane number of biodiesel is higher than the cetane number. specific fuel consumption of diesel with biodiesel use close to, while achieving power and torque values, the engine runs less knock. Biodiesel from cleaning debris from the engine power reduction and diesel has better lubricity properties.
Diesel engines can also operate using biyodiesel. Diesel engines, air is compressed first, then fuel the ultra-hot, ultra-pressure combustion chamber to operate on the principle of compression is sprayed. The fuel / air mixture using a spark to ignite the gasoline Unlike diesel engines used in motor fuel to fire with hot air. This simple process allows the diesel engine to run on heavy fuel.
Biodiesel is chemically in any diesel vehicle’s fuel tank is similar to diesel fuel to be directly involved in biyodiesel. Biyodiesel can be used in engines that use diesel fuel without making any technical changes or small changes. However, biyodiesel is not compatible with the natural rubber used in some vehicles manufactured before 1996. Because biyodiesel destroys hoses made of natural rubber and seals. However, these problems B20 (20% biodiesel / 80% diesel), and a lower ratio of biodiesel / diesel mixture is not observed. However, the storage of biodiesel’s solvent properties of diesel fuel due to the resulting residue and sediment in the fuel tank fix in the pipe wall and measures must be taken for the clogging of the filter. In addition, fuel stations and car repair shops do not need any changes.
It launched in Germany in 1996 from VW and AUDI and biyodiesel use in all motor vehicles in the Mercedes truck has been released completely. Mercedes used cars for taxi use is also free. Other Mercedes and BMW 5-series for an additional 300 DM ‘health there is a need for a conversion.
France Sofiproteol, Rouen, biyodiesel producers as Novaol, Peugeot, Citroen, Renault, such as automotive manufacturers and Elf, Total, such as oil companies biodiesel production occurs with the overall EU political support is derived from canola oil.
Social Benefits of Biodiesel
• Biodiesel can be used as the equivalent of clean diesel fuel, domestic and renewable alternative fuel
• improvement in the socio-economic structure of rural areas and local jobs
• contribute to the prevention of migration
• to create new jobs
• Foreign economic and strategic contribution to the country of origin to reduce dependence on oil
• sustainable due to cleaner combustion products and contribute to the future of public health
• The value added to the economy, contributing to the development side of the industry
• The return of foreign exchange spent on importation to the country’s economy
• contribute to the development of the manufacturing industry
• Protection of natural energy resources and the environment
• Sustainable energy support
• Energy agriculture (farming of oilseeds) development
• limited and exhaustible energy resources alternative
• reduction of harmful greenhouse gas emissions
• reduction of air pollution and public health risks
Biodiesel Consumption Areas
• properties owned biyodiesel, allows the use of alternative fuels as a fuel other than diesel engines.
• Biodiesel ‘Emergency Fuel’ and ‘Military Strategic Fuel’ can be referred to as.
• Biodiesel can be considered as generator fuel and heating fuel.
• sulfur-free biodiesel, can be an excellent fuel for greenhouses.
• In addition, underground mining, industry (including food-processing industry) use is recommended.
• In our country, biyodiesel is a fuel that can be used in all areas of our much diesel is used outside the cold zone.
• Biodiesel instead of diesel fuel for motor vehicles and sea as well as the transport sector such as transport, housing and industry can be used as fuel in certain proportions.
Turkey Biodiesel Production
Published in the Official Gazette 27857, dated February 25, 2011 and the date the decision of the Cabinet Auto Biodiesel and Biodiesel Fuel to 0.9100 TL / lt PCT applications was introduced.Biyodiesel production constitutes the major part of the cost of raw materials. The cost of biyodiesel production through the introduction of excise duty applied by manufacturers have indicated that recovery. Currently, the situation in our country has stagnated this sector. Most manufacturers have canceled the license production of the license has become incapacitated. In Turkey, 20 thousand tons of production made by only one company is known. In our country, there are processing facilities have received the license for the production of 34 units of biyodiesel by the year 2012. This property of the total biyodiesel production capacity is 561 217 tonnes it has been reported by EMRA.
Published in the Official newspaper September 27, 2011 date and 28 067 “Communiqué Amending Technical Regulation Communiqué Regarding the Diesel Types” according to which the supply of the fuel to market diesel types, produced from domestic agricultural products of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) of content: 01/01/2014 date at least 1%, at least 2% as of 01.01.2015 date, there has to be at least 3% as of 01.01.2016.
Biodiesel Processing License Area Companies
Source: Directorate General of Renewable Energy