Wind Energy and Wind Power
How Wind Energy comes from somewhere? All types of renewable energy (tidal power and geothermal excluded) and fossil fuel energy from the sun even caused as a result. 100,000,000,000,000 kW hours of energy the sun sends to the earth. In other words, the earth, gains strength as 10 to 18 watts.
1-2% of the energy from the sun is converted into wind energy. This is the energy that all plants on earth convert to biomass 50-100 are solid.
The temperature difference generates an air flow.Regions near the equator warm more ısınır.b region compared to other regions of the world, infrared photograph in warm colors (black on red, yellow and orange on the sea surface) appears. Hot air cold air is lighter and rises into the sky until it reaches approximately 10 km. This warm air mass moving down by crashes approaches to the North and South Pole and return to the equator.
every movement on the northern hemisphere to the rotating Earth, according to our position to the right (left for the southern hemisphere) turns. This apparent bending force of the Coriolis force (Coriolis Force) is known. This force is referred to explore the French mathematician Gustave Gaspard Coriolis’s name (1792-1843).
North will turn toward a particle moving on the right hemisphere may not seem so obvious. This event can be revived as follows:
Imagine a cone moving southward toward the end of the world, and if we add the fact that back, we see that if the right cone record.
The Coriolis force is a visible event. One side of the railway line will wear faster than the other. The river descends deeper than the other side of the bed (we found that depends on which side of the hemisphere and the northern half of the globe is moving towards a particle on the right).
Wind in the northern hemisphere, is inverted anticlockwise moves closer to a low pressure area.Southern hemisphere the wind rotates clockwise around low pressure areas.
The Power of Wind
Wind speed is important in terms of the amount of energy a wind power can turn the turbine. The energy content of the wind varies in proportion to the cube of the average wind speed. So if the wind speed is 2 times, it contains 8 times the energy. So, the energy content of the wind varies in proportion to the cube of the wind speed. From daily life, one can notice that the car’s speed is 2x the case of braking energy and the need to stop 4 times. (In fact, this is Newton’s 2nd law of motion).
Wind turbine, for example, subtracting the speed of 2 times the wind increased in 2 times the last slice number of the propeller every second, and each of those slices contains four times the energy as seen in the example of the braking of the car.
Why Wind Energy
Wind energy today, in the 21st century and is one of the most promising technologies beyond them.Here are some short answers on the most frequently asked questions on wind energy:
Wind power is clean
there is no pollution from wind turbines. A modern 600 kW wind turbine in an average location, usually a year, will replace the 1,200 tons of carbon dioxide transmitted to other power plants with coal.
a run time of 20 years (average somewhere) a wind turbine energy production produced by maintenance of activity is more than eight times the energy necessary for disassembly and disintegration. In other words, a wind turbine generally to manufacture and to operate for recovering energy required may simply be two or three months
Wind Energy Intensive
The wind energy is truly unsustainable sources. Wind is a never-ending thing. Currently, wind energy andI meet the 31.1% figure, the Danish electricity consumption is expected to rise to 40 percent range in 2008. Wind resources on the shallow seas surrounding Europe, all the electricity used by Europe’s theory is as meeting with many times.
Wind energy is different
Wind turbines have grown a lot in terms of size and production capacity. a typical property from the 1980s Danish wind turbine, a generator at 26 kW and has a rotor diameter of 10.5 meters. A modern wind turbine a rotor diameter of 43 meters and reaches a 600 kW generator. 1 year, 2 million kW / h of energy produced. These are equal to the annual electricity consumption of 300 to 500 houses in Europe. the latest generation of wind turbines 1000-1500 kW generator and a 50-60 meter rotor diameter convenience. Located in Carnon areas of Wales, Europe’s large wind turbine parks, it produces an equivalent energy needs of 20,000 housing.
1997. In Europe, more than 3,000 MW of wind energy, has enabled it to meet the electricity needs of about five million people. (Windpower.dk – Danish Wind Industry Association)
Wind energy, movement of the air currents that generates the wind (the kinetic energy. This energy is converted into a part of useful mechanical or electrical energy. Starting to benefit from the power of the wind goes back to ancient times. The wind sailing as a way to benefit first from the power and windmills displayed. Then, grinding grain, pumping water, wood was used for the wind power to cut jobs. Today, it is used to produce more electricity.
The fossil, nuclear and other methods of harmful gases are released into the atmosphere, these gases are polluting the air and water. During the extraction of energy from the wind is not none of these harmful gases released into the atmosphere, and thus wind energy is a clean energy, creating the only noise pollution. The noises of the rotating impeller is now greatly reduced.
Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy of the system are then before mechanical energy into electrical energy in the wind. A wind turbine towers in general, generator, speed converters (gear box), electrical and electronic components and consists of the propeller. The kinetic energy of wind is converted into mechanical energy in the rotor. speed accelerated movement of the propeller shaft is transmitted to the generator in the body. electric power obtained from the generator is stored or directly transmitted to the receiver by means of batteries.
Although diversity in size and types of wind turbines in use, it usually classified according to the rotational axis. Wind turbine according to the rotational axis “Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines” (Locus) and “Vertical Axis Wind Turbines” (PROBLEMS) are divided into two grades.
Wind Turbine Internal Structure
1. Place Machines (Nacelle)
Machine location, the wind turbine including the gearbox and electric generator comprises locking components. Service personnel can enter the turbine tower instead of machines. Machine left in place, the wind turbine rotor blades and the hub that is located.
2. Blades are (Rotor Blades)
Blades capture the wind and transfer its power to the propeller hub of the wind. length of a modern 600 kW wind turbine blades are 20 meters long each and are designed like an airplane wing.
3. Hub (Hub)
The propeller hub is connected to the low speed shaft of the wind turbine.
4. Low Speed Shaft (Shaft Low Speed)
low speed shaft of the wind turbine is connected to the propeller hub gear. A modern 600 kW wind turbine gear is relatively slow, 19 minutes – returns with 30 rpm speed. This shaft aerodynamic brakes comprise tubes of the hydraulic system to operate.
5. Gear Box (Gearbox)
The gear is located low speed shaft on the left. Right at high speed spindle provides 50 times the speed of rotation of the low speed shaft.
6. Mechanical Brake Shaft Speed (High Speed Shaft with its mechanical brake)
Mechanical brake high speed shaft rotates with approximately 1,500 revolutions per minute and run the electric generator. There is an emergency mechanical brake. Mechanical brake, or if the operation of the turbine under maintenance when used aerodynamic braking.
7. Electrical Generator (Electrical Generator)
Electricity generator, which is typically a synchronous generator or asynchronous generator. The maximum electrical power in a modern wind Turbie usually 500 – is between 1,500 kW.
8. Electronic Control Unit (Electronic Controller)
The electronic control unit constantly monitors the status of the wind turbine and a computer that controls the tilt mechanism. In case of a failure (for example, gear box or overheating of the generator) wind turbine automatically stops the turbine and the phone will alert the operator by means of a computer modem line.
9. Hydraulics (Hydraulics System)
The hydraulic system provides for the aerodynamic braking of the wind turbine.
10. Cooling Unit (Cooling Unit)
The cooling unit includes a cooling unit used to cool the generator. It also includes a cooling unit used to cool the oil in the gearbox.
11. Tower (Tower)
The tower of a wind turbine rotor position and carry the machine. High tower generally be an advantage, as the wind speed increases with distance from the ground. In a typical modern wind turbines of 600 kW and 40 – 60 meters is located in a tower.
The towers may be of circular or grid. The circular towers that could be an internal staircase to reach the top of the turbine is safer for staff to look at the turbines. The main advantage of lattice towers is cheaper.
12. Tilt Mechanism (Yaw Mechanism)
Tilt mechanism, the machine where the electric motor with the propeller is used to rotate against the wind.
Tilt mechanism, which senses the wind direction vane is run by using the electronic control unit.Wind, turbine normally change direction when tilted only a few degrees at a time.
13 and minute hand anemometer (Anemometer and Wind Wane)
Anemometer (wind gauge) and minute hands, used to measure wind speed and direction.
electronic signals from the anemometer, the wind turbine by the electronic control unit wind speed of about 5 m / s approach is used to run wind turbines. Computer, wind speed turbines to protect the environment and 25 m / s is exceeded when the turbine automatically stops. Shearwater, to return the signal by the electronic control unit of the wind turbine against the wind the wind turbine used to rotate against the wind. [one]
Modern Wind Turbine Technology
Wind Turbines today confronts us with two different designs. Rotatable about the vertical axis design them as you see the first of the following photographs.
vawts that “Vertical Axis Wind Turbine” (Vertical Axis Wind Turbine) is called.
The vertical axis is designed to be perpendicular to the ground. According to the future is always no need to adjust wind direction of the wind relative to ayarlanır.yatay axis. In the first movement usually it requires the electric motor. Turbine axis is fixed with help from the wire. The yield because it takes less wind near sea level device is low. However, even though all the necessary equipment is an advantage to be at ground level, is more negative impact to agricultural land.
Another important design Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (hawts) “Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine” is called. It is designed as a rotation axis parallel to the ground. The direction of the propeller according to the wind direction with the help of an electric motor can be adjusted. Is structurally not different from an electric motor. Efficient high as to be approximately 80 meters above sea level is required to work.
Rotor Blades (fan blades): Wind energy conversion utility to rotational movement.
Shaft (Shaft): transmits rotary motion to the generator.
Gear Box (Gearbox): increase the speed between the propeller shaft helps produce faster transmission of movement.
Generator (Generator) section generating electricity from rotary motion.
Breaks (Brakes): Overload and benefits to stop the propeller is a problem.
Tower (Tower): Provides Department of the propeller and the engine running at a safe height above the ground.
Electrical Equipment (Electrical Equipment): Provides produced electrical energy to be transmitted to the relevant centers.
Calculation of the produced energy
For calculation of the energy produced by a wind turbine is needed and the speed of the wind rotor diameter. Mostly large wind turbines 15 meters per second to go quickly. In order to increase the energy generated theoretically should increase the propeller diameter. This means the increase of the height of the wind turbine. Thus providing a faster rotational movement takes more wind.
Usually they are working at full capacity wind turbines whirled 33 miles per hour. 45 miles an hour (20 meters / second) if they appear to speed the system automatically stops. if more turbines are to many of acceleration control system will stop. The most common system sisteminidir.perv brake valve 45 miles / hour to stop the operation when it reaches the speed of rotation. Moreover, other security elements are
Angle Control: When the propeller speed, produced ernerj also be too much. In such cases the handle is used to change the angles of the rotational movement of a slower rotor.
Passive Retarder: Usually propeller and engine block are set at an angle of patience. But it is a system designed to prevent wind blew very quickly when the propeller of the hill to be turned inside out. Aerodynamically it tries to reduce the speed by changing the angle of the propeller in the opposite direction of the wind.
Active Retarder: Angle is a system similar to the control system. If there is more than the generated power to change the angle of the propeller and the engine block is for the system.
Overall 50,000 wind turbines, the annual 50 billion kilowatt / hour of energy produced. [2nd]
1 Korona Clean Energy Systems, is koronaenerji.com.tr