Greenhouse gas resulting from the use of fossil fuels to produce energy emissions, mostly carbon intensive and carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere, causing global warming and climate change. capture carbon emissions under the global climate change challenge is the issue of the capture and storage technologies are made versatile serious research. Carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies (carbon capture and storage-CCS) as anılmaktadır.açıg capture carbon dioxide, it is possible to store and maintain. Thus, a slowing down of large-scale reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and climate change is possible.
All fossil fuels contain carbon. CO² generates carbon reacts with oxygen during combustion.separating the carbon before or after the combustion process, such as in power plants, preventing the spread of CO² atmosphere. Consequently CO² gas will be transported to a suitable underground storage reservoir. These reserves are abandoned oil and gas field, a coal beds or aquifers.
Why carbon capture and storage?
Evidence for the influence of human activities on global warming is increasing day by day. the ever-increasing consumption of CO² gases emitted into the atmosphere as a result of the burning of fossil fuels is the main cause of global warming. Many scientists fixing of CO² concentrations in the atmosphere and thus share the same opinion about the CO² emissions in order to mitigate climate change in the world today compared to the need to reduce at least 50%. The first step in the Kyto Protocol in 1997. In this regard, the year 2012 was taken on the decision of CO² emissions fall below the 1990 level. The required reductions can be realized by means of three types of measures:
• Decrease in energy efficiency and energy demand increases
• The use of renewable energy sources
• the retention and storage of the exposed CO² gas
Energy increase in efficiency and renewable energy sources can not provide the required reductions in CO² emissions is clear. As well as CO², keeping the third measurement for reducing global climate change and storage (CCS) is required. underground storage of CO² is not a new practice.This procedure is performed for millions of years in many countries. Today the world is a huge demand for fossil fuels and changes in our energy system will take many, many years. The transition to diversified sources of energy from fossil fuel sources is a factor that CCS grade crossing. During this transition period our present energy supply system will largely remain the same but the new infrastructure development should be explored, such as power plants and large industrial plants will be equipped with CO² keeping units and pipelines to storage sites.
The CO² gas How and where?
Approximately 60% of human-induced CO² emission power plants, refineries, gas processing plants and industrial plants, such as occurs in large stationary plants. In many of these processes, the exhaust flue gas diluted CO² (5% to 15%) contains. CO² in the exhaust smoke mixture is to separate one from the other to produce a gas stream comprising more than 90% CO². Another option is just as natural gas (methane), carbon and hydrogen production, as was the case CO² before burning is to remove from the system. CO² capture, CO² is a well-known technology in different industrial sectors, apart from other gases. Currently, emerging out swinging or CO² CO² or as the beverage industry from the high purity is being niche market an additional treatment is required. Although some suitable technology exists, enough for widespread use in power plants optimization of CO² capture has not yet been achieved. New world in many countries, the absence of ideas for the future of technology and the lower cost and the current situation of energy were undertaken extensive research to innovation to be achieved by consumption. At the same time, commercial scale technology began to be applied also held a variety of new tests on plants in mind.
Where CO² stored?
After capture, CO² either stored or re-used (for example, in greenhouses to help plant growth and production of carbonated beverages). Today, CO² ‘s back is limited store space will be put to use, must be stored in a large amount of the resulting CO² gas. CO² depleted oil and natural gas reserves, stored in geologic formations such as deep saline aquifers and coal seams unminable.Thereof, as well as CO² solidifiable mineral form. Geologic formations offer a huge storage capacity (see table below). Despite the high percentage of storage capacity, the capacity of the world in human-induced CO² emissions for tens, possibly hundreds of years can meet storage needs.
CO² stored by methods which are listed below;
• increase the production efficiency of oil wells (Enhanced oil recovery-EUR) This method is applied for many years in oil production, including Turkey.
• Improve efficiency in natural gas production wells (Enhanced gas recovery-EGR)
• Depleted oil and gas wells
• storing the salt formation
• Increasing the lineout Coal bed methane (Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery – ECBM)
• storage in the ocean
CO² and Capacity Storage Options
Oil and gas reserves are usually located researched in detail and considered to be reliable for storage of CO². Because for millions of years, these reserves are oil, gas and often they keep the CO². CO² injection in some of these will provide the remaining oil or gas is produced in an amount of more reserves. The revenues from the oil or gas produced extra, available for expenditures to be made during the CO² storage.
Deep saline aquifers are underground formations, typically in the sand, containing saline water.storage potential of these formations is very high: these formations present in most countries, often close to industrial CO² CO² supply and usually has a very large storage capacity. CO² into these formations is similar to the injection into oil and gas wells. The world’s first economic CO² injection Norwegian Sleipner project, about 1 million tons of CO² annually aquifer is printed at the bottom of the North Sea. In this case, plenty of CO² ‘s poses evidence that is stored in a smooth way.
Co²’n’s capture, the cost of transportation and storage
Energy is the catch co²’y Plants extra energy, increases the production cost of electricity. The increase in plant species (coal or gas fired) and varies depending on fuel costs. Among them affiliated with the International Energy Agency Greenhouse Gas Research Unit of the research to be done, including various surveys, capturing CO² per kWh cost of electricity production showed increases of 1.3 to 3 euros. Another way of expressing these extra costs is avoided CO² emissions.now the cost of 1 ton of CO² avoided capture ranges from 25 to 60 € per CO². Ongoing research is expected to halve these costs. Transport costs are relatively modest: the cost of 1 ton of CO² per avoided CO² transport between 1 to 4 €. Storage costs depend on the type of reservoir into which it is injected. In aquifers and depleted oil and gas reservoirs, the cost of 1 tonne of CO² per 10 to 20 €.If additional oil and gas production in CO² printing, may be less than the cost to € 10 per 1 tonne of CO². In other words, the benefits make this a profitable business to meet costs.
CO² dehumidified compressed and transported in two ways:
• Move the pipes (the preferred method)
• transport by tankers (LNG as transport)
distance to be moved, quantity, are matters that affect the cost method of transport.
Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies
not a single technology, carbon capture and storage, carbon capture, compression, consists of a combination of a number of technologies, including transport and storage and so the various elements and components. Therefore, the method is difficult to be operated and has a complex structure. Major power generation plants that use fossil fuels, refineries, hydrogen production plants, cement, iron and steel, can be applied in areas such as petro-chemical industries. CO² retention, the separation from the flue gas CO², compression, drying, transporting, and covers be made ready for storage operations. carbon capture for power generation, mainly after combustion (post-combustion) prior to combustion (pre-combustion) and oxy-fuel combustion (oxyfuel combustion) technology is used. CENTRAL (conventional supercritical, stations etc.) in the flue gas pollutant emissions (SO2, NOx, PM) After switching to minimize CO² retention process.
Some ways to keep the combustion CO²: Solvent retention, keeping with sorbents and methods are keeping the membrane. Solvent (particularly monoethanolamine) holding at least cost, using the least energy and developed a method is commercialized.
Pre-combustion carbon capture, integrated gasification combined cycle (Integrated gasification combined cycle – IGCC) is suitable for use in power plants. The first stage is passed over red-hot coal steam, syngas (synthesis gas) is formed.
HC + H2O? xCode + (x + y / 2) H2 (syngas)
The synthesis gas is cleaned of contaminants.
Second stage: CO + H2 + H2O CO²
CO² solvent (eg. Methanol) is maintained with the aid. Pollutant emissions to de-SOX, do not need additional treatment facilities, such as de-NOx.
Oxy-fuel combustion method, oxygen is used instead of fuel burned in the air. Therefore, a air separation unit. sıkıştırılırak and water vapor in the flue gas is cooled and separated. pollutant emissions in flue gas purification. CO² remaining ready to be stored is compressed. Because air is decomposed and the nitrogen prior to combustion does not require separated treatment system for nitrogen oxides.
Source: Directorate General of Renewable Energy