Thermodynamic Laws


There are four thermodynamic laws to be which is 0, 1, 2 and 3. Laws of thermodynamics is a very general in scope and the details of the interaction or does not change depending on the characteristics of the analyzed system. So just know the substance or energy input and output of a system, even if applied to this system.

Laws of Thermodynamics Scientists

The Laws of Thermodynamic

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamic

“Two bodies of temperature is equivalent to a third object, these two objects is equivalent to the temperature of each other.” This is called the law of thermodynamics.

Even though they are two systems interact with each other, if the situation remains unchanged for the two systems are in equilibrium with each other it is called. If the two systems, although they are open to interaction with the mechanical interaction between energy transfer (work) outside the net energy transfer (heat transfer) does not exist, these two systems are thermal equilibrium with each other. Zeroth Law states:

“If A and B systems are in thermal equilibrium with each other, a C system, the heat balance of the system, in case the heat balance and the B system.”

This equilibrium state is defined as the temperature. So each temperature represents a different equilibrium. This situation:

Ta = T = T C is formulated form.

Ralph H. Fowler defined by the law in 1931, that appear as a fundamental physics principle, naturally born 1 and 2 must come before the law and took the name zero-law.

An example of the implementation of this law as a thermometer can be given. Thermometer “third system” is used and allows the creation of a temperature scale.

The Laws of Thermodynamics

The First Law of Thermodynamic

The first law of thermodynamics, the law of conservation of energy and represents the transformation and emphasizes that energy is a relevant feature of thermodynamics. According to the law of conservation and transformation of energy, energy can not be destroyed or have not gone, but is transformed into different physical and chemical processes with other forms of energy, an energy form.

The first law of thermodynamics can be expressed as follows: “A closed system net work done during all adiabatic state changes that may occur between a particular situation is the same regardless of the system or the situation changes.”

The difference between the business cycle and temperature values as expressed by δ = differential. Here are the first two terms curve function is the function point of the third term. The first law of thermodynamics in a closed system; δq = d + d (Appendix) + d (Ep) + can be written as .delta.w. This means: When the stop to a system thermodynamic change of state power may exceed the system limits as heat or work, heat and work can be positive or negative change in net energy owned by the system is exactly equal to the net energy of the boundaries of the system.

The Second Law of Thermodynamic

“The second law of thermodynamics, processes can occur in a particular direction, it can not be expressed in the opposite direction.” But a state change, both the first and second laws of thermodynamics can occur if both provide.

For example, the slope of fuel a car consumes think. diminishing the gas tank in your car, not the car downhill again fills the tank itself down. That is the only way to change the situation. restrictions are put on the state changes the direction of the first law of thermodynamics. A cycle according to the first law heat can be converted completely to work, I Qçev = I Wçev. So, according to the first law, which can work without a heat engine heat into the environment from the system, that is 100% efficient engine, it is possible to do. That makes it the second law restrictions.

The second law of Kelvin-Planck statement of thermodynamics describes the situation: “The periodic employee makes a single heat source and heat exchange by regularly work producing a machine made of the possible değildir.b heat source heat Pull work it in equal amounts and a never seen another result cycle is impossible to achieve.

Heating and cooling machines (air conditioners, refrigerators …) is the relationship between second law of thermodynamics, Clausius has explained: “The environment has no effect leaving the temperature of a heat pump that transmits the hot heat source from the cold heat (or cooling machine), it is not possible.” Or in other words, “thermal energy can not flow into the cold to warm environment itself.”

The second law of thermodynamics is not found in nature conservation law for a reversible process.This law, called entropy, which is one of the thermodynamic properties of the system has led to the identification of a new expression.

” Entropy , can be defined as a measure of disorder in the system.” irregularities in the system increases the entropy increases. For example, a gas that is accelerated and irregular movement of molecules when heated, entropy increases. If a system is fully organized, entropy may become zero. Unlike energy, entropy is not a protected characteristic and the total of all the transactions in the real system and the environment is always positive entropy change.

The Third Law of Thermodynamic and Absolute Entropy

for the entropy of different material, creating subject-initialisation, it revealed the thermodynamic 3.Ysasası. This law first attempts WH Nernst (1864-1941) and Max Planck (1858-1947) by. It is related to the entropy of the goods in the third law of thermodynamics absolute zero temperature.According to the third law of thermodynamics: “A perfect crystal is zero entropy at absolute zero temperature” shape. In this case, statistically, it indicates that the highest degree of crystal structure and thermal energy are minimal here.

Temperature of absolute zero closer to all the action is close to zero. Temperature approaches absolute zero, the entropy of a system approaches a constant. not because it is a constant of zero to that number, and stop all movement is still present is the uncertainty caused by uncertainty due to this, although none of the differences in the molecular arrangement of the crystalline substance. In addition, the absolute entropy can be defined very useful in the study of chemical reactions to reference material through the third law of entropy in absolute zero.

The number of this machine in violation of the law that one type of law (for example, if not from the first type creates energy) circulation machine (in an interesting way in Turkish “Come Ahmet Machine”) is called.

Ginsberg’s theorem: (1) you can not win, (2) you can not stay tied, and (3) you can not quit the game.

Or: (1) You can not get anything to work, (2) is to be working most harmless thing unprofitable, but you can get, and (3) you can get it in but the absolute zero.

Or, (1) what you can earn game nor can exit the game, (2) bitiremezs game a draw unless it is very cold, (3) the weather is not so cold.

Source: Mehmet TAŞKAN, Laws of Thermodynamics

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