Lighting Technologies, Led Daylight and Fiber Optics
For over 150 years through the invention of the light bulb it is one of the largest lighting instruments revealed that the technology has passed. The resulting combustion method produces 93 percent of the energy generated by the light bulb with the electric wire resistance to the passage of electrical current is wasted becomes increasingly infrared radiation. This is therefore a need for an alternative solution that enables more efficient use of energy with developing technology. The most important of Applied alternative method of operation are lights fluorescent based on a simple basis. electric current circulating around the gas in the lamp in this method is passing the gas off, and light is produced.When compared with fluorescent bulbs, which last longer, it can convert 25 percent of the 6,000 hours endured energy to light.
A century lighting technology does not change the basic logic is no longer energy-saving light bulbs that, fluorescent tubes, halogen lamps and LEDs with advanced laser technology and solutions that have been introduced in many areas.
Lighting also used New Technologies
With LED Lighting
LED (Light Emitting Diode) light emitting diode ‘it means. If diode formed by joining a plurality of parallel groups of series, high light emitting LED lighting systems are used more extensively every day. LEDs are produced in several types together or individually have very vivid and bright colors using lighting elements are produced. Red, orange, yellow, green, Yellow 2, as they are produced in blue and white colors, each LED chip two (bi color) color or tri-color (RGB) are also produced.
LED lighting systems are used in many places lately due to advances in lighting technology, creating different atmospheres with light effects, it offers innovative solutions to the modern age and beyond.Blue, green, red, amber and white color options, which were presented to the world of design, long-lasting, durable and easy to implement LED lighting systems, architects and lighting designers to give the opportunity to realize their creative ideas.
LEDs are very low power consumption, very long life (100,000 hours), low voltage lighting fixtures advantages and is a much more frequent in the coming years we will be confronted with an incredible shock resistance.
LEDs, TV remote control to cell phones, toys from night vision systems, until the traffic light indicator lamps are used in our car in every area. In the lighting industry, stairs, floors, exterior, garden lighting, shower – bath – sauna lighting, night clubs, scenery, window – glass – floor and wall lighting, signs, direction signs, walkways, as many doorways It can be used anywhere.
With Daylight Lighting
Natural sunlight; We see our true colors with the aesthetic environment provides the locations of the large and spacious look and thereby reducing our eyes and nervous fatigue, soothes our soul, our psychology and our efficiency in every respect is a positive influence. It also reduces our need for artificial electricity during daylight hours.
Despite these vital facts, present conditions, even if they were built with the latest technology, we can say that our buildings benefit enough from sunlight is not possible.
But in interiors can be illuminated by light tubes days. For example, fiber optic light tubes connected to a bowl placed in sunlight collectors on the roof, interiors in reducing their lighting-related energy costs, can create a more natural lighting.
With Fiber Optic Illumination
Light, electricity or heat energy with fiber cable barındırmaksız expressed as the negative effects of transport is a new illumination technique. The light in fiber optic systems Ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) and the risk of explosion due to the inclusion of valuable objects radiation is the best alternative for the illumination of high places. To be in different parts of the fixture with light source makes it easy to reach and maintain in light of the difficult points. It also has an important role in the design and effects of different modeling options.
the museum and exhibition space, facades, the monuments and lighting in explosion-risk areas, which are difficult to reach with fiber optic lighting, and especially important in areas where aesthetic design is used.
Selection of Energy Efficient Lamp and Appliance
Will buy new lamps and tools in order to be replaced with a new or existing home should be the most efficient economic strength may be enough. Decision There are several important points to be considered while. Knowing the rate of Tools, where to find, purchase and use of energy costs for the user are important points of how it will affect. Also, the instruments used in homes which consume the most energy, and should know how to estimate the energy costs of specific tools.
Sometimes the more energy-efficient appliances satınalark sometimes are paid less. But in both cases the energy efficiency long lifetime of savings provides. Thinking to save the user may prefer to initially cheaper but yields a low device. But the consequences will be faced with higher electricity bills every month. use as long as you own an instrument is entered into the obligation to pay the cost. These operating costs may increase exponentially. For example; 13-15 years use a fridge usually cost 1.5-2 times the purchase cost. The sum of the costs for the purchase and use of a less efficient tool than the total cost of a low-yielding instruments.
Energy Saving Lighting
Approximately 20% of the monthly electricity bill at home is the use of lighting. Efficient lighting will be achieved satisfactory results with lower bills and better quality lighting bill will provide relief in both eyes.
The provision of energy-saving lighting with simple measures is an important advantage for us. Here it is shown the necessary attention to the issues that are important. energy-saving lighting should be done by fulfilling the requirements of good lighting without compromising the quality of the lighting. It was provided with lighting for more efficient lighting elements, ultimately we will ensure the same level of lighting with less energy consumption.
Instead of using low-efficiency light sources suitable highly efficient light sources and lighting energy savings can be achieved.
lamp types that are widely used in our country are as follows:
In incandescent light acquisition format thermal radiation which makes tungsten wire, the electric current to the heating wire incandescent electric energy situation and the start of the heating wire is converted into radiation energy. they publish a large part of the radiation heat of these lamps, are a small part of the visible radiation. Therefore, the yields are extremely low. (H = 10 to 20 lm / W)
Halogen Incandescent Lamps
Tungsten halogen lamp, incandescent lamp replacement of the gas mixture in the atmosphere (addition of halogen) with a beam is generated heat source. Due to the renovation of the halogen tungsten wire used in atmospheric molecules such lamps, wire temperature can be increased.Consequently, according to the incandescent lamps of the same power, luminous efficacy and color temperature can be increased slightly as well.
Radiation acquisition format in which the thermal radiation fluorescent lamps, light production occurs in two stages. The first stage, low-pressure mercury vapor lamp environment performed by passing an electric current by applying a fluorescent substance to the inner surface “electrical discharge” event is generated by radiation. The efficiency of fluorescent lamps is increasing lamp power increases substantially. However, when taken Lamps in the same power, efficiency is directly linked to the change to the structure of the fluorescent powder.
tubular energy-efficient light sources in line with the results of studies in the production of fluorescent lamps has also achieved great improvements. 38 mm diameter, 20 W, 40 W, 65 W lamps instead of health, 26 mm in diameter, respectively 18 W, 36 W and 58 W fluorescent lamps are available health.The diameter of the lamp luminous flux are increased shrunk and has started to produce various color temperature and color separation feature lamps. Small diameter lamps are more economical.
Compact Fluorescent Lamps
Compact fluorescent lamps are suitable for homes and offices, incandescent lamps, compact fluorescent lighting is easy to convert. Incandescent lamp used almost everywhere available compact fluorescent lamps. For example, instead of 75-watt incandescent lamp, using a 15-watt compact fluorescent lamp, but lighting is obtained by consuming 80% less energy.
In our country, these lamps, not widespread than in developed countries because it is expensive.The difference in price is an extremely efficient lamp price. But it is seen that the total cost is less than the cost over the lifetime of the compact fluorescent lamps we take into consideration. Two factors confirm this; According to them the first incandescent lamps have a long lifespan 8 times, and the second, they use energy up to 20% of incandescent lamp.
The following formula, based on 8000 hours lifetime compare the data by calculating the total cost of individual lighting lamps.
“Electricity Cost = Cost of electricity in kWh x Wattage x Lifetime (h) / 1000”
Working Principle of Magnetic and Electronic Ballast for Fluorescent Lamp
Ballasts, fluorescent tubes and compact fluorescent lamps to give the first run command and run.Fluorescent lamps are filled with mercury and argon gas. Balastd electrode on the receiving end of the lamp power they give rise to electrical discharge to ionize the gas. When returning to normal energy levels of atoms of mercury ultraviolet photons they emit. Lamp phosphor coating photons fluorescents absorbs and generates visible light.
Magnetic Ballast: Magnetic or electromagnetic ballasts are referred to as aluminum or copper wire around an iron ore. Copper wire ballasts, 10% relative to aluminum is more efficient. Magnetic ballasts, AC standard frequencies, but also with 50 Hertz. use extra low-loss ballast of electrical consumers is recommended.
Electronic Ballasts Electronic ballasts, reducing vibration and noise of the lamp can be operated at higher frequencies compared to magnetic ballasts. Electronic ballasts, magnetic ballasts use 25% less electricity. more energy savings are possible with the opportunity to achieve many of the lights dimming electronic ballasts. More efficient lighting systems produce less heat. 928 and 929 of the electronic ballast in accordance with IEC international standards and should be sure to have a high power factor.
Electronic and magnetic ballasts due to higher line that leads to the loss or degradation phase jump may have a low power factor. Phase power-factor capacitors can be installed to fix the ballast or ballast generated during production as unified.
Choosing the Right Lighting
Choosing the right bulb, it depends on what purpose and where it is used. Incandescent lighting level in the election on time and changed to reflect to factors such as the ease of the following considerations should be taken into consideration. Proper lighting the closer it will be saving more money and natural resources.
Hourly cost efficiency as the number of the lamp, more durable and efficient to invest in the most correct decision. Investment and shorter repayment period.
Starting characteristic of the first operating characteristics of various types of light bulbs are different. For example, during the first study magnetic ballast fluorescent lamps illuminate delayed, electronic ballasts for fluorescent lamps illuminate instantly. After 1-2 minutes, both magnetic and electronic ballasts for fluorescent those they reach full brightness.
Colour lamps give a warm yellow-white color. Halogen lamps are whiter. Fluorescent lamps are lit up in warm yellow cold white colors.
In particular, light weight, light weight fragile parts of fittings and fixtures can be an important factor in decision making. The weight of the magnetic ballasted compact fluorescent lamps, electronic ballasts are more compact fluorescent ones.
Placement is designed for use in interior lamps should not be used in exterior lighting. For example, when in contact with cold water is not recommended for exterior lighting lamps in thin glass lamp may be broken.
Orientation to place the needs of the lamp lighting choice should be considered how useful it will be redirected. Private (local) low-voltage halogen lamps in spotlights to illuminate the desired application particularly suited for specific locations.
Setting Setting Setting switch mode (section) lets through energy-saving standard incandescent lamps. But all lamp types are not suitable for setting key.
with a specific time to automatically turn off lights when mounting a clock or someone around that time the use of optical or ultrasonic sensors will light these keys may be used in an alternative way.
Price to select the cheapest bulb, do not save money in the long run. Because lighting energy costs over the lifetime of the lamp itself will be more than ten times the cost of purchase. Therefore, energy-efficient lamps, while initially expensive, investment soon pays for itself with lower utility bills back very quickly.
Lumen / Watt ratio Lamp efficiency factor in the selection (lumens / watt) high, long life, over time, the heat flux drops of less lamps should be preferred.
Energy Saving Lighting Points
• An incandescent lamp is replaced with compact fluorescent lamps, lighting costs are reduced up to 80%.
• If budgets allow users to take several fluorescent lamps at a time, it is possible to change the remaining months of completion as stated in the order.
• lights should be turned off when leaving the room. Family members will be reminded to turn off lights when leaving the room would be useful to issue notes.
• Daylight should be utilized as much as possible. The room should be arranged to make better use of the advantages of natural light. Window provided a real reduction in electricity bills by placing a table and chairs close.
• Exterior doors are replaced with halogen lamps, searchlights. 50-90 watt halogen lamp, two times more wattage will still achieve the same lighting standard is inserted in place of a reflector lamp.
• Periodic maintenance of lamps and luminaires should be done. When the lighting system maintenance work done more efficiently. Deposited on making good results in lamp maintenance powders reduces the amount of useful light. The dust emits light fixtures 50%, 50% of swallows.Keep them clean, but the amount of light can be increased more than energy expenditure. light output of all lamps decreases over time. Light output declining yields that must be replaced by falling lamp.
• Lamp elections the highest lumen / Watt ratio should be based on.
• Walls and ceilings should be painted with bright paint, decorative items should be selected light as possible.
• The lamp light output should be used as efficiently. The maximum rate achieved the surface to be illuminated in the light output of the lamp is one of the most important factors affecting the efficiency of the lighting system.
• Provides more light is needed part in numerous low-power lamp rather than a single high-powered lamps use more efficient lighting.
• sends the direction you want your decorative lamps light. Light colors are best spent more transparent canopy lampshades light.
Source: Directorate General of Renewable Energy