Hydrogen Energy Production and Storage
Discovered in hydrogen 1500s, it was recognized as well ability in the 1700s, the universe’s most simple and the most abundant element, colorless, odorless, air 14.4 times lighter and is completely non-toxic gas. Sun and other stars are heating fuel hydrogen has given a thermonuclear reaction is the main energy source of the universe. H2 gas is typically about -253 ° C (-423 ° F or 20 F) liquefying stored. If the volume of liquid the volume of hydrogengas is only up to 1/700. Known hydrogen has the highest energy content per unit mass in all fuels (Upper calorific value of 140.9 MJ / kg calorific value of 120.7 MJ / kg). 1 kg H2; 2.1 kg of natural gas or energy has owned the 2.8 kg of oil.However, the energy per unit volume is high. Hydrogen does not occur free in nature, found in compounds. The most well-known compound is water.
Heat and explosion energy required to clean and easy to use in any field where the fuel used is hydrogen in the energy system, the product released to the atmosphere only water and / or is water vapor. Hydrogen is 1.33 times more efficient fuel than petroleum fuels. the environment outside the water vapor during the extraction of energy from the hydrogen contamination, and increasing the greenhouse effect gas and producing no harmful chemicals is not an issue. As hydrogengas obtained by different methods of water, solar energy or wind considered as derivatives thereof, it can be produced by wave and biomass.
Research, in such circumstances is hydrogen than other fuels is about three times as expensive and widely used in the production of hydrogen as an energy source of use shows that the mission cost reduction due to technological developments. However, it can be considered as a valid alternative to today’s hydrogen storage of surplus energy that occur in daily or seasonal basis. For purposes of example public transport in this manner commonly stored energy can be used it depends on the development of automotive technologies based on fuel cells.
The world’s steadily growing energy needs without polluting the environment and the hydrogenenergy system that can provide the most advanced technology in a sustainable way that is accepted by all scientists today.
Hydrogenenergy has no impact will threaten the environment and human health. Coal, natural gas and water as well as of fossil fuels from biomass derived from hydrogen is considered to be very energy carrier from the energy source. Electricity in the 20th century energy carrier, hydrogen is an energy carrier of the 21st century he has the circles. Hydrogen production is possible locally, which can be carried anywhere easily and securely, with less energy loss during transport, the transport of heat, so our kitchen industry is an energy system which will be useful in any area.
Hydrogen on the catalytic surface as well as the direct use in internal combustion engines is an acceptable fuel flameless combustion. However, fuel cell technology is in line with the development of hydrogen as the fuel of the world.
In the late 1950s, NASA space used by fuel cells beginning their work, especially in recent years, is now available with success in the industrial and service sectors, especially in the transport sector.Fuel cells, portable computers, power supplies are also suitable for power stations as it can be used for mobile applications such as mobile telephones do have. Due to its high efficiency and low emissions, they have found wide application area in the transport sector.
Although new production of hydrogenenergy system is not new. Currently 500 billion m3 of hydrogen are produced worldwide each year, stored, transported to and used. The biggest share of users in the chemical industry, especially with the petrochemical industry.
In our country, fertilizer Industry (25.000m3), vegetable oil (margarine) production (16.000m3), petroleum refining houses (refinery) (1.200m3), petrochemical (30.000m3), hydrogenated fats production (200-300m3) and various locations in pressurized cylinders to be used in gas or liquid hydrogen production (6.000m3) it is made to be used only in industry. commercial scale production is not available for the purpose of energy production. Hydrogen production resources are plentiful and varied. It can be obtained from fossil fuels, such as solar, wind and hydro energy production, such as by way of electrolysis of water with the use of renewable energy sources, and the biological processes for the production of possible production from biomass. Nowadays mainly hydrogen is obtained by steam reforming of natural gas. Although economic studies on making a well-known method of water electrolysis, likewise research and development activities in the production of hydrogen from solar energy continues through biotechnological methods.
Storage of Hydrogen
Perhaps the most important feature of the hydrogen is stored. As is known, still has not found a convenient way to store energy in large amounts nowadays. If it were possible to store the energy obtained from hydroelectric power plants today, it might be able to solve the energy problem to some extent. However, the best storage method for electricity is still not known anything other than acid accumulators. It can be stored in tanks as pure hydrogengas or liquid can be stored in the form of physical or chemical hydride as carbon nanotubes.
Hydrogen can be stored as qualified steel tank of gas or liquid. However, due to the high gas pressure in the tank weights creates problems in storage. Perhaps the most inexpensive method for storing hydrogengas, in a manner similar underground natural gas to storage in depleted oil or gas reservoir. The slightly higher cost, which is a storage method, is to hide in caves in the mines.
Hydrogen by more than 4 times the volume of oil containers; Hydrogen to minimize the volume occupied by the hydrogen peroxide is required to store liquid. at high pressure and cooling is needed for this. Liquefied hydrogen is stored under high pressure in steel cylinders. This method is the most widely used method for middle or small scale storage. However, it is quite an expensive method for large quantities. Because approximately ¼ of the energy must be spent for the hydrogen liquefaction process. Another practical solution is stored in tanks at low temperature liquid hydrogen. in the space program, liquid hydrogen is used as a rocket fuel is stored continuously in this way. The world’s largest liquid hydrogen tank is able to receive the Kennedy Space Center in 3400 m3 of liquid hydrogen. This amount corresponds to the value of hydrogen as a fuel or 29 million Mega Jule 8 million kW-hours.
The result of the efforts made in recent years, hydrogen can be stored in carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes are already turned to the shape of the tube briefly graphite layers. Diameter of a few nanometers or 10-20 nanometers, length is the micron level.
Chemical hydrogen in metals, alloys and can be stored in arametal hydride. Although very convenient method for storing hydrogen, metal hydride, is emerging as a serious problem with their weights. In the last 10 years because of high storage capacities and complex aluminum hydrides containing boron it has been extensively studied. boron-containing complex hydrides is also important because the use in liquid conditions. Boron-based systems are based on the main sodium borohydride. NaBH4, solid contains 10.5 wt% hydrogen.
To the solution, sodium boron hydride, are converted to give the hydrogen according to the reaction, and sodium metaborate.
NaBH4 (s) + H2O-> 4H2 + nabo2
H2O and NaOH and the amount by weight of sodium borohydride in the liquid may be between 20-35%, which is between 4.4-7.7% by weight of the system makes it possible to store hydrogen.
Sodium boron hydride storage of hydrogen in the most important rule of stored hydrogen can be resumed at room temperature and the catalyst can be easily controlled repurchase assistance.Sodium borohydride is the most important bottlenecks in the hydrogen for use to convert again NaBH4 consisting of metaborate.
Hydrogengas, natural gas similar to the gas or air pipes can be carried out easily and safely through the intermediary anywhere. Hydrogen to be transported by pipes, which are used by the oil industry in Texas and opened for business in 1938 in the Ruhr region in Germany with the pipe network with a length of 80 km and can be exemplified today under 15 atmospheric pressure that carries hydrogen 204 km long pipeline. The pressurized hydrogen, transporting placing steel tubes, which develops a very trial so far has been the method used in the hydrogen-powered vehicle. the biggest problem is their weight steel tube seen here. Gasoline car averaged 65 liter (47kg) which passes gas, which corresponds to 17 kg of hydrogenenergy. Although to solve the weight problem of storing hydrogen as a liquid, tank volume and cost increases. Another problem is the loss and refueling difficulties formed by inserting into hydrogengas.
Source: Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources