Cooling Towers and Types


Cooling towers in air conditioning or manufacturing jobs, are thrown into the atmosphere of the devices used in the cooling water temperature. Examples of the water-cooled condenser heat is exhausted through the water cooled in the cooling tower.Evaporation of the water in the withdrawal of heat in the cooling tower air is wet because the main bulb temperature is effective.

Cooling towers are two types of open and closed. In open cooling towers, water is sprayed directly into the air from a small nozzle to be cooled. in the form of tiny droplets of water, and cooled by air passing around by their evaporation. Sudan is emitted into the air and be in the form of latent heat transfer.Closed cooling in the tower (evoparatif condensers), the water is in the pipe-shaped coil to be cooled. The cooling air passes through the outside of the pipe. This is another in a water sprayed out of the pipe. It enters the water to be cooled in the heat necessary for evaporation of water pipes.Thus the cooling tower to be cooled off by water from contact with the external environment, a closed circuit would be cooled in a cooler surface. It may be forced or natural air flow in the tower.The fillers can be used to increase the heat transfer surface. Forced air movement in the flow of the radial or axial fan provided. Each of these alternative forms a separate tower. The towers may be manufactured from various materials. Constructional types of towers, concrete, wood, reinforced plastic sheets; The standard towers are usually made of steel or reinforced plastic plate. Staining only use galvanized sheet or sheet material against corrosion in the steel tower is not enough.Special treatment for corrosion resistance history, finished and painted towers of hair coated with a special film on the surface should be used. The corrosive nature of the water or when atmospheric conditions are concerned, it is recommended the use of plastic tower.

Cooling Towers

Cooling Tower Types

Atmospheric Towers

• air movement in the tower depends on the wind.
• Water is sprayed from above the breast.
• Mechanical parts They are no longer useful life and require little maintenance.
• It does not appear the air recirculation.
• If the tower should be very long if the circulation pump and the discharge of more height.
• Open and obstacles should not be placed in the field.
• air inlet and outlet surfaces must be the most frequent direction of the wind that blows.
• Measures should be taken against the construction of wind power for long.
• There is risk of mist in the wind tower six sides.
• Water temperature varies depending on the wind direction and intensity.
• Wet bulb temperature in degrees approach is not good.
• The cost is as high as forced-flow towers.

Spray Towers

• It does fill.
• Available only hill spray nozzles.
• Maintenance costs are low.
• The delivery head of the pump must be more to our water atone.
• blockage of the nozzle creates an imbalance and decrease performance.
• Wind is the cause of more losses.
• Suitable for relatively small cooling loads.

Spray Cooling Towers

Filled Towers

• Air / water contact surface and filler used to improve the time.
• Performance is better than the spray tower.

Forced Flow Towers

• Airflow fan is provided with full control is possible.
• rules that require less space.
• The water temperature can be controlled.
• Required pump height is less pressing.
• Tower placement does not depend on wind direction.
• Efficient towers can approach the wet-bulb temperature of up to 1-1.5 ° C. But practically 3-4 ° C are preferred.
• The high operating costs due to the fan power.
• Mechanical failures can degrade performance.
• Avoid the entrance of the outlet air recirculation. Otherwise tower performance drops.
• Operation and maintenance costs are higher than natural draft towers.
• vibration and noise should be taken to avoid creating problems, caused by the fan.

Wind Towers

• Tower fans fills the air at the air inlet on the US side.
• The mechanical components close to the tower base. Thus, the problem is less vibration and easily accessible during maintenance.
• The mechanical components in contact with dry air inlet.
• The fan size is limited; According to the number of the suction and high speed due to the use of a smaller tower fans generate more noise but the tower itself shows damping characteristics.
• Create the form of ice blocks or contraction in the winter and air intake fans are trends.
• if the air flow rate is low there is a risk of some types of recirculation. In this case the air must be removed by rapid channel.

Blowing and Suction Cooling Towers

Suction Towers

• Usually, air is sucked out with the fan located at the top of the tower.
• There is less noise and thus lower the probability can be used bigger fan speed.
• Dust may be absorbed at high input speeds. The air filter may be required.
• Ensure that the air outlet is less possibility of high recirculation rates.
• Fans are more prone to vibration is located on the upper side.
• accessible harder mechanical disruption during maintenance.
• The mechanical components exposed to moist air flow.
• The fans are not included in the base, the base area is smaller than the blow tower.
• the air above the water flowing in countercurrent tower where it is absorbed by the other in the opposite direction with the dry air meets the cold water, maximum performance is obtained.

Cross-flow tower

• has a larger base area than the countercurrent tower.
• Air intake can take place in all the tower height. Tower is a short length can fit into the architectural restrictions.
• When placed in the area are closed recirculation risk.
• Required pump height is less pressing.
• easily accessible to the water distribution system.
• If the tower should take precautions against dust and dirt will not be used inside dr.
• Double entry should be careful not to block the air inlet in the tower.

Against Cross-Flow Cooling Towers

Closed Circuit Cooling Towers

Closed circuit cooling towers working principles of efficiency and water saving features currently holds evoparatif cooling. In some cases it is preferred that a closed system of the refrigeration cycle.Such a system is advantageous in situations where the effective temperature difference is formed by stopping the secondary circulation. There are two cycles in a closed circuit cooling towers. the fluid to be cooled (primary circuit) is circulated through the pipes in the heat exchanger. This heat exchanger surface area is sprayed with water from the secondary water circulation. The water temperature in adsorbing, sprayed water is transferred to air passing through.

The tubes of the heat exchanger can be designed as flat or airfoil. Flat-tube heat exchangers are used in the steel tubes division of water. Input and output connections are welded to the chamber. All components are protected against corrosion thanks to hot-dip galvanized. the model name given to a type of hybrid closed circuit cooling towers are available. Hybrid cooling towers instead of vane-type pipe heat exchanger thermal efficiency is increased using. copper or aluminum pipes are used in this system. The heat exchanger generally plated plastic. Closed-loop rig with optimal placement and ensure that the system is very easy to integrate. Additionally, the possibility of easy access to parts, repair and maintenance friendliness, natural appearance compact, quiet operation, offers durability and economy of the cooling tower to reach the end point of service technology.

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