Bioethanol Fuel Production and Properties
Bioethanol, raw sugar beet, corn, wheat and other woody plants such as sugar, starch or cellulose to gasoline and concise obtained by fermentation of agricultural products is an alternative fuel that is used blended in specific proportions.
Bioethanol is a clear, colorless liquid with a characteristic odor. It is a high-octane fuel (113) is the boiling point of 78.5 ° C, the freezing point of -114.1 ° C. Bioethanol 20 ° C 0.789 g / ml has a density. Internal combustion engines used in blending amount of 10% without the need for any modification. Bioethanol two most common usage,
• E-10 (10% + 90% gasoline Biyoethanol) and
• E-85 (85% + 15% Biyoethanol Gas) d.
Bioethanol is blended with gasoline;
• Biyoethanol used in order to increase the octane in the fuel, benzene, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as friendly alternative to carcinogenic substances,
• Biyoethanol fuel according to the blending ratio improves engine performance by providing an octane increase of 2-3 percentage points,
• Biyoethanol prevent freezing, the engine keeps the cooler and cleaner nozzle.
Resources can obtain the raw material for bioethanol
• Sugar beet
• Sugar cane
• Sweet Sorghum
• Agricultural Waste
Bioethanol Fuel Specifications
Before the starch sugar, then it is provided with the direct conversion of the fermentable sugar bioethanol.
Bioethanol Production Process
starch source to be used for the production of bioethanol in the preparation process (wheat, corn, sugar beet, etc.) hammer-milled through the mill and cellular structure is broken down by the enzyme aids (liquefying enzyme). In this way the emergence of starch and to obtain a better yield of ethanol production is provided. The resulting starch is converted to sugar with the help of another enzyme (saccarifactio the enzyme). crushed starch source at this point of manufacture, enzyme and water formed a slurry in the liquid, is transferred to the next process by placing yeast to the fermentation unit.
sugar molecules in yeast slurry added to the fermentation process converts the molecule into biyoethanol. This process 60 – takes about 80 hours. requirements for work with Mayan high data is checked during this time. At the end of fermentation to be achieved between 10-12% of biyoethanol in the slurry. Moreover, it divided the carbon dioxide released during fermentation.
Bioethanol is separated by distillation in the slurry obtained in the fermentation results. This decomposition process of distillation tower is supplied by heating the liquid. The result of the distillation rate of 95 to 96% biyoethanol, be separated from the slurry fermentation. This separation of water-ethanol, biyoethanol purity by filtration with the aid of molecular sieve technology is increased to 99.80 to 99.95%.
Uses of bioethanol
• mixed with gasoline
• diesel as an additive in motor
• Recent technological vehicles (hybrid, fuel cell)
• In Agriculture
Cogeneration Unit in
• Reduction of NOx emissions from fossil fuel plants
• for CO2 trading
• the steam-injection gas turbine
• Combined-cycle power plants
• Diesel power generator
• cogeneration Small (or cooling) systems Stirling
• the elimination of water salinity (1 ton of ethanol 600 and 100 m 3 of water from the salt. Can be separated)
Small in Home Appliances
• Oven in
• Heating and cooling devices in
• The storage of food (cooling)
• In the ethylene production
• Hydrogen production
• Glycol ethers
• Ethyl acrylate
• Acetic acid
• ethyl acetate
• Ethyl ether
• chlorides of ethyl +
Bioethanol with the Environmental Benefits
• Bioethanol fuel to increase the oxygen level in the easiest way. To increase the oxygen level of the fuel, providing a more efficient fuel combustion reduces harmful gases in exhaust,
• When used with the aim to increase the octane bioethanol fuel, benzene, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as friendly alternative to carcinogenic substances,
• Bioethanol reduces exhaust emissions,
• Bio-ethanol blends, which leads to a reduction of the ozone layer allows substantially decrease in hydrocarbon emissions,
• High-level bio-ethanol mixtures provide up to 20% reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions,
• High levels of Volatile Organic Compounds by the use of bio-ethanol mixture (VOCs) ‘s 30% or higher reduction is achieved (one of the most important reasons for the formation of ground-level ozone VOC’s)
• Biyoethanol with carcinogenic benzene and butadiene emissions are reduced by 50%,
• Biyoethanol provides a significant reduction in sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions.
Bioethanol Social Benefits
• Creating a high added value for agricultural products, new markets, contributing to the development of agriculture of the plants used as raw material for ethanol,
• New and domestic investment with development of energy for agricultural activity – providing employment opportunities,
• Energy for farmers engaged in agricultural income and seen an increase in welfare,
• imported oil to alternative domestic needs, and create a strategic renewable energy source,
• Bioethanol, unlike fossil fuels, is a fuel produced from renewable sources. There is no production restrictions and does not disturb the carbon balance in nature,
• soluble without damaging nature bioethanol,
• Thanks to high oxygen levels in the meat containing bioethanol reduces carbon monoxide levels between 25-30%. This is higher than any other oxygen enriching additives. Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas that cause air pollution. More in particular the vehicle occurs when operating at low temperatures. Bioethanol, CO level leads to reduction by ensuring better combustion.
• This provides a great advantage in terms of social and environmental health threats.
Source: Directorate General of Renewable Energy