Battery Technologies and Battery Types
Battery stores electrical energy by converting electrochemical energy and can return the stored energy as electrical energy into electrochemical energy storage system as and when required. The multiple battery system is called the battery caused by binding to each other. Batteries, one or more electrochemical cells such as fuel cells or flow cells consist of electrochemical devices. Cell phones, radios, laptops and so on. electronic devices, electric vehicles, satellites and space systems, they have quite a wide range of fields to use communication systems and air defense systems.
Batteries cell, metal anode (negative electrode), metal oxide cation (positive electrode) and the electrolyte consists of providing the chemical reaction between the two electrodes. Anode, cathode electrolysis in aşınırk ionic exchange reaction occurs as a result of electric current. This reaction is caused by electric energy is used in various devices.
Batteries in series, namely a battery of the positive (+) terminal of the battery’s negative (-) terminal is connected to the increased voltage, the batteries life is kept constant. Batteries in parallel, i.e. positive polarity between its negative poles are also kept constant tension is connected among themselves, but life is improved as the number of batteries.
A battery energy storage capacity is defined as indicated by Ah ampere-hours and. 1 Ah equals 3600 coulombs. If one battery continuously for 1 hour or 1 coulomb / sec. the batteries capacity can produce energy is 1-h. If the electrolyte and electrode within the battery’s capacity is the greater.Therefore, within the same voltage that enables chemical reactions occur even if a small battery capacity is less than the larger batteries. Because of the chemical reactions inside the cell, the size of the current end time of the batteries, the current time may vary due to environmental factors such as temperature and various other factors.
Battery manufacturers are using a standard method to rate. Battery constant current and constant time (such as 10 hours and 20 hours) is reduced to the voltage set for each cell. For example at 100 Ah battery health, based on a current of 5 A. and at room temperature for 20 hours.The efficiency of a batteries is different at different discharge rates. draining the battery’s energy is distributed efficiently at low speed than at high discharge rates.
Overall batteries, then disposable (non-rechargeable) and rechargeable (Rechargeable) is divided into the batteries.
Batteries are classified as wet or dry. In wet-cell battery, the electrolyte fluid. Dry cell battery electrolyte, cakes, or other matrix has a gel state.
In primary batteries, it takes place in the cell reaction and the reaction was irreversible. Primary batteries can not be recharged. Chemical reactions in the secondary battery is reversible. Externally rotated to deal with an energy reaction. Power can be loaded into the secondary battery source.Batteries of various shapes, sizes, and voltage is generated. Batteries are rectangular, cylindrical, produced in the form of buttons and coins.
Lead-acid batteries are known as wet batteries. The symbol is Pb. Lead acid batteries (batteries) used in automobiles, motorcycles, boats and various other industries, the study used with lighting and ignition purpose.
Dry cell batteries, cadmium, mercury, nickel, silver, lead, including various metals such as lithium and zinc electrolysis cells consists of a potentially dangerous. Batteries also to control the chemical reactions inside the battery contains other chemicals. For instance mercury is added to the zinc anode in primary cells (alkaline and zinc-carbon batteries). Thus, corrosion problems and potentially explosive hydrogen formation of gas is prevented. It also prevents the mercury battery self-discharge. Other batteries compounds, graphite, brass, plastic, paper cartons and steel.
The anode of alkaline batteries with high-surface area of the zinc powder, while the high quality cathode manganese dioxide (MnO2) are available. a cellulose derivative used for gelling the electrolyte. The electrolyte is potassium hydroxide. Alkaline batteries, mercury oxide as the active cathode material (HgO) or silver oxide (Ag2O), such agents may also be used.
Zinc Carbon Batteries
1870-90’l dry batteries is first developed in the year. Electrolytes, aqueous ammonium chloride or zinc chloride. by adding a metal oxide inert to the electrolyte it is allowed to coagulate.
Zinc Air Batteries
clean the atmospheric air as the cathode is oxygen gas (O2) is used.
Silver oxide batteries
Silver oxide batteries are used in very small amounts. The button-shaped batteries are manufactured in various sizes. They produce more constant voltage of alkaline and zinc-carbon button cell batteries. Silver oxide batteries, can be charged internally with mercury oxide batteries. It is used in hearing aids and watches.
Lithium has the lowest redox potential in metals. Very light and it is not toxic. For these reasons it is investigated to use lithium as the anode and is used in wide range. Lithium cells have a long life. At low speed, energy consumption, requiring the device (such as watches and calculators) lithium batteries are used in the form of small cylindrical or button cells. This tool can run for several years.
Source: Directorate General of Renewable Energy